Sewage treatment plants are necessary to remove contaminants from wastewater before it is discharged into the environment.
Sewage treatment plants use a variety of physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove these contaminants from wastewater. The specific processes used will depend on the type of contaminants present in the wastewater and the desired quality of the treated wastewater.
Some of the most common sewage treatment processes include:
• Screening: This removes large debris from the wastewater, such as leaves, sticks, and rocks.
These remove grit and sand from the wastewater.
• Primary sedimentation:
This allows suspended solids to settle to the bottom of the tank.
This adds oxygen to the wastewater to help break down organic matter.
• Secondary sedimentation:
This allows additional suspended solids
to settle to the bottom of the tank.
• Biological treatment:
This uses microorganisms to break down organic matter in the wastewater.
This kills pathogenic microorganisms in the wastewater.
Once the wastewater has been treated, it is discharged into a receiving body of water, such as a river, lake, or ocean.
WHY ARE STP PLANTS NECESSARY?
Sewage treatment plants are essential for protecting public health and the environment. Without sewage treatment plants, wastewater would contain harmful contaminants that could pollute waterways and cause waterborne diseases.
Sewage treatment plants are necessary for a variety of reasons, primarily related to public health, environmental protection, and the sustainable management of wastewater. Here are the key reasons why sewage treatment plants are essential:
Protection of Public Health: One of the primary reasons for sewage treatment plants is to protect public health. Human sewage contains harmful microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites, which can cause a wide range of waterborne diseases if not treated properly. Sewage treatment plants remove or inactivate these pathogens, making wastewater safe to release into the environment or reuse for non-potable purposes.
Environmental Protection: Untreated sewage can contain pollutants such as nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), organic matter, heavy metals, and chemicals. When released directly into natural water bodies, this sewage can lead to water pollution, eutrophication (excessive nutrient enrichment), and harm to aquatic ecosystems. Sewage treatment plants help mitigate these environmental impacts by removing or reducing these contaminants from wastewater before discharge.
Prevention of Contamination: Untreated sewage can contaminate groundwater, surface water, and soil. Contaminated water sources can lead to the pollution of drinking water supplies and agricultural lands, posing a significant risk to human health and the environment.
Compliance with Regulations: Sewage treatment plants are designed to meet local, national, and international regulatory standards and water quality guidelines. Compliance with these regulations is necessary to avoid legal and regulatory penalties and to ensure that wastewater discharges do not harm the environment.
Resource Recovery: Many sewage treatment plants incorporate advanced processes that allow for the recovery of valuable resources from wastewater. For example, treated sewage can be used for irrigation, industrial processes, and even potable water supply in some cases, reducing the demand on freshwater sources.
Minimization of Odors and Nuisances: Proper treatment of sewage helps reduce odors, unsightly conditions, and other nuisances associated with raw sewage, improving the quality of life in urban and suburban areas.
Protection of Infrastructure: Untreated sewage can lead to corrosion and damage to sewage collection systems, pipes, and equipment. Treating sewage helps protect this infrastructure, reducing maintenance and repair costs.
Public and Environmental Safety during Extreme Events: During heavy rainfall or flood events, untreated sewage can overflow into water bodies, causing significant environmental and public health risks. Sewage treatment plants can incorporate systems to manage and mitigate these overflows.
Sustainability and Water Management: Sewage treatment plants support sustainable water management practices by treating and recycling wastewater for non-potable purposes like irrigation, industrial processes, and cooling water for power plants. This helps conserve freshwater resources.
Long-Term Planning and Urban Development: As urban areas expand, sewage treatment infrastructure is crucial for accommodating population growth and urban development while maintaining sanitation standards.
In summary, sewage treatment plants are essential for protecting public health, preventing environmental pollution, complying with regulations, and ensuring the sustainable management of wastewater. They are a critical component of modern sanitation and wastewater management systems that contribute to healthier communities and a cleaner environment.
IMPORTANCE OF SEWAGE WATER TREATMENT PLANT
The methodology for eliminating pollutants from the wastewater fundamentally from the family sewage is called sewage treatment. It needs to go through the compound, physical and organic strategy to eliminate these pollutants and give out a naturally protected treated gushing. Semi-strong slurry called the sewage ooze is the result of the sewage treatment. This muck is additionally handled before it is reasonable for land application.
Sewage treatment is likewise called as wastewater treatment, for example it likewise includes treatment of wastewater from enterprises. In numerous urban communities, the sewer conveys an extent of modern wastewater to the sewage water treatment plant which has proactively gone through a treatment in the production lines for lessening the poison. In the event that it is a joined sewer it will likewise convey storm water alongside it.
The sewage waters travel to the sewage water treatment plants through pipes and pumps. The sewage in the sewage water treatment plant goes through the accompanying essential processes.
Anaerobic Sewage Treatment
The sewage is to some extent decomposed by the anaerobic microscopic organisms in the tank without air. This makes the organic matter decrease to methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and so on this treatment is utilized to regard organic waste and sludge as it gives enormous limit and extraordinarily diminishes the input material generally.
Aerobic Sewage Treatment
In this strategy, the pollutants are processed by the high-impact microscopic organisms. In the sewage water treatment plant air is continually provided to the bio-zone. The cutting edge high-impact sewage plants utilize normal air flows. This cycle takes out the contamination and smells by giving total oxidation and ingestion of natural poison and matter into carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water. The treated emanating is consequently toxin free and can be released for use.
The ordinary sewage water treatment plant incorporates a few phases specifically the primary, secondary and tertiary treatment. Before the process starts clothes, clean things, garments and so on are taken out from the municipal sewage works.