Membrane bio reactor (MBR) is the combination of a membrane process like microfiltration or ultrafiltration with a biological wastewater treatment process, the activated sludge process.

Membrane Bio Reactorprocesses can produce effluent of high quality enough to be discharged to coastal, surface or brackish waterways or to be reclaimed for urban irrigation. Other advantages of MBRs over conventional processes include small footprint, easy retrofit and upgrade of old wastewater treatment plants.

It is possible to operate MBR processes at higher mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentrations compared to conventional settlement separation systems, thus reducing the reactor volume to achieve the same loading rate.Two MBR configurations exist internal/submerged, where the membranes are immersed in and integral to the biological reactor and external/sidestream, where membranes are a separate unit process requiring an intermediate pumping step.

The filtration element is installed in either the main bioreactor vessel or in a separate tank. The membranes can be flat sheet or tubular or combination of both.

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